no specific question, please respond to the 4 posts as directed (75 words each)

no specific question, please respond to the 4 posts as directed (75 words each).

I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and need an explanation.

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HS111: Medical Terminology

INSTRUCTIONS: For your participation responses you need to choose two classmates and respond by asking them for information that you would want to know but they did not cover in their original post and include a problem that you are experiencing related to performing your activities of daily living. Your response should be around 75 words. Please review the Discussion Board grading rubric attached to understand how your posts will be evaluated.

CLASSMATE POST #1

Mrs. Vinton you have been diagnosed with osteoporosis which is a common disease. This is when the density and quality of your bones has been reduced. Your body Is constantly absorbing and replacing bone tissue. With osteoporosis, new bone creation does not keep up with old bone removal, causing your bones to become porous. Most people with osteoporosis don’t have any symptoms and they until they have a bone density test or a fracture, they don’t know they have it. There is only one early sign and that can be a loss of height caused by curving of the spine.

We ran an x-ray on your body and spine and we performed a bone density scan to diagnose you and to determine your risk for fracture. The usual treatment for this condition is a combination of medication and a change to your lifestyle. Bisphosphonates, which allow the bone building cells in your body to work more effectively, are the most common medications prescribed for osteoporosis treatment. As far as your lifestyle, the changes we hope to see are more exercise and good nutrition, really focusing on foods rich in Vitamin D and Calcium. Those two vitamins and minerals also add to the bone-building process in your body. If you smoke or drink work on cutting back and then eventually quitting. The outlook for people with osteoporosis is good, especially if the problem is caught and treated early. Bone density generally can be improved to an extent and the risk of fractures can be greatly reduced with treatment.

~ Adrienne Abascal ~

Sources:

https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=osteoporosis

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16795-bone-disorders/types

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoporosis/in-depth/osteoporosis-treatment/art-20046869

https://www.health.harvard.edu/a_to_z/osteoporosis-a-to-z

CLASSMATE POST #2

Welcome Vinton Family,

I am glad that you all came to the office today to support Joy while we discuss her diagnosis. If you have any questions while we go over her condition, please feel free to stop me and ask. Joy has been diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans, which is a fancy word for inflammation of the bone and cartilage. It is a joint condition in which the bone underneath the cartilage of a joint dies due to the lack of blood flow. We typically see this condition in children or adolescents, but we occasionally see it in older patients as the bones start to become brittle. After doing an x-ray and an MRI of the knee, we can see where the cartilage has broken loose which is what is causing her much pain, swelling, tenderness, and making it hard for her to walk. It is good that she came in early so that we can treat her and get her back to walking with her friends and playing with her grandchildren again. Since there are bone fragments floating around the kneecap, I would like to recommend orthopedic surgery. For now, I will prescribe an NSAID, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug like ibuprofen, and I will give it in an 800mg every 8 hours. Make sure to take this medication with food or milk as it could give you an upset stomach. We will get you a referral to an orthopedic surgeon and you will be well on your way to being pain free.

~Misty Harpoon~

Reference:

Mayo Clinic, (n.d). Osteochondritis Dissecans. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteochondritis-dissecans/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20375891




HS200: Diseases of the Human Body

INSTRUCTIONS: Please review the Discussion Board grading rubric attached to understand how your posts will be evaluated. Your posts should be qualitative and provide substantive depth that advances the discussion. You need to make 2 or more responses to your classmates or instructor and your responses should be around 75 words.

CLASSMATE POST #3

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes acute damage to the lungs, digestive system, and other organs in the body. This disease affects the cells that create mucus, sweat, and digestive juices which are generally thin and slippery. People with CF secretions become sticky and thick. Instead of working as lubricants, the secretions clog up tubes, ducts, and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas. Cystic fibrosis is progressive and involves day-to-day care, most people with CF are typically able to be present at work and school. Some people may not experience symptoms until their teenage years or adulthood. People who are not detected until adulthood normally have milder disease and are more likely to have atypical symptoms, such as recurring bouts of an inflamed pancreas, infertility, and frequent cases of pneumonia. Other symptoms seen with people with CF have inflamed nasal passages or a stuffy nose repeated lung infections, and exercise intolerance. Your intestines are not able to fully absorb the nutrients in the foods. Most commonly this will result in chronic or severe constipation, poor weight gain and growth, and foul-smelling, greasy stools. There is currently no cure for cystic fibrosis, but treatment can reduce symptoms, complications, and improve quality of life. Medications that aim at gene mutations, including a new medication that combines three drugs to treat the most common genetic mutation causing CF and is considered a major achievement in treatment. Other medication options are anti-inflammatory medications to lower swelling in the airways in your lungs, acid-reducing medications to help pancreatic enzymes work better, and mucus-thinning drugs to help you cough up the mucus to improve lung function.

~Brooke Markowycz ~

Reference:

Cystic fibrosis. (2020, March 14). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystic-fibrosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353706

CLASSMATE POST #4

Different ways in which a genetic disorder can be passed to another person happens often. These genetic mutations can cause Autosomal dominant patterns which is when a mutated copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient for a person to be affected by an Autosomal dominant disorder. In some cases a person can be infected by a parent, but in rare instances the condition can occur with no family history at all.

When referring to the Autosomal Recessive genes, these do not show any symptoms or signs and are not seen in every generation of families. An example of an Autosomal disorder is Huntington disease, which is a progressive brain disorder that causes uncontrolled movements and several emotional problems. An example of Autosomal Recessive condition is sickle cell disease, which is a group of disorders that affects the hemoglobin, the molecule in the red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body.

Not all disorders are caused by genetic mutations, there are a lot that have to do with environmental tactics such as heart disease and schizophrenia.

~Kassandra Thurlow~

References:

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/inheritance/inheritancepatterns

no specific question, please respond to the 4 posts as directed (75 words each)

no specific question, please respond to the 4 posts as directed (75 words each)

I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Save your time - order a paper!

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HI253: Medical Coding

INSTRUCTIONS: Each reply post should contain at least 75 words—citing references using APA format as needed. Follow attached rubric to earn max points.

CLASSMATE POST #1

This discussion covers the combination code guidelines in ICD-10-CM obtaining to MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and the difference between an infection and colonization with MRSA. An MRSA infection occurs when the MRSA bacteria enters the body, the bacteria can enter the body in many different ways such as a cut or wound, or even an IV. The infection can cause painful red boils on the skin, and can also cause more severe reactions if it enters the bloodstream. Colonization occurs when someone with a positive lab result for MRSA (a staph bacteria that is resistant to some antibiotics) but is asymptomatic. Reports by StaphInfection Resources state that roughly 30% of people carry Staph bacteria (and an estimated 1-5% carry MRSA) on their skin and/or inside their nose or throat and don’t even know it. Even if you are a carrier at the time of testing does not mean you can’t get the MRSA infection later on, you are at an increased risk of developing the infection.

In order to code to the highest ability as possible, you will need to understand the AAPC ICD-10-CM guidelines covering MRSA . There are multiple areas covered in the section, one of them being combination codes for the MRSA infection and it explains the use of the combination codes related to MRSA. The combination code is when one code states what the infection is, and that MRSA caused it. Understanding that MRSA is bacterium and can cause other infections throughout the body helped me to understand the importance of the combination codes and how it helps me by not having to use multiple codes to describe an infection caused by it.

~Barbie Merrell~

CLASSMATE POST #2

This discussion covers the combination code guidelines in ICD-10-CM obtaining to MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and the difference between an infection and colonization with MRSA.

Colonization is when someone with a positive lab result for MRSA (a staph bacteria that is resistant to some antibiotics) but is asymptomatic. Reports by StaphInfection Resources that “Roughly 30% of people carry Staph bacteria (and an estimated 1-5% carry MRSA) on their skin and/or inside their nose or throat and don’t even know it” But just because you are a carrier at the time of testing, doesn’t mean you can’t get the MRSA infection later on; you are at an increased risk to getting the infection. (StaphInfection Resources, 2007-2020)

MRSA Infection begins when the MRSA bacteria enters the body, below are examples of how it can enter the body (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research,1998-2020):

• open skin (cut, wounds)

• Medical tubing (IV, catheters)

• intravenous drugs (IV drug users)

The infection can cause painful-red-pus filled-boils on the skin or more severe issues if it enters the blood or other areas of the body. Depending on the documented location of the infection, is to how it is coded.

To code to the highest ability as possible, you need to understand the information in AAPC ICD-10-CM guidelines covering MRSA (I.C.1.e). One area covered in this section is the “combination codes for MRSA infection.” This explains the use of combination codes in relation to MRSA. The combination code is when one code states what the infection is, and that MRSA caused it.

Understanding that MRSA is bacterium and can cause other infections throughout the body helped me to understand the importance of the combination codes and how it helps by not having to use multiple codes to describe an infection caused by it.

~Barbie Merrell~

SC121: Human Anatomy and Physiology

INSTRUCTIONS: Each reply post should contain at least 75 words—citing references using APA format as needed. Follow attached rubric to earn max points.

CLASSMATE POST #3

Free radicals are unstable atoms that can damage the cells in your body through a process called oxidation (Dennett, 2018). While they are natural waste products from chemical processes in our body like our metabolism, the problem with free radicals comes from a buildup that can harm our cells, proteins, and DNA. This buildup can occur from substances that generate free radicals like fried foods, alcohol, cigarette smoke, pesticides, and air pollution. An excess of free radicals can cause serious health issues such as cancer, macular degeneration, cardiovascular disease, emphysema, alcoholism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ulcers, arthritis, and lupus. Free radicals are also associated with aging because they cause damage over time, causing our cells to grow incorrectly (Szalay, 2016).

Antioxidants hinder the formation of free radicals (Derrickson, 2017). Our body produces antioxidants on its own, however it is an insufficient amount. Therefore, we should eat foods high in antioxidants to prevent a buildup of free radicals (Szalay, 2016).

Some of my favorite foods high in antioxidants include mini bell peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, peanut butter, avocados, watermelon, and turmeric. But my current favorite way to stock up on antioxidant rich foods is by eating Golden Delicious apples. Being in Washington state, the Golden Delicious apples I can get are the most delicious! I literally eat an apple a day and (fingers crossed) keep the doctor away.

I knew that apples are excellent sources of antioxidants, however through my research for this week’s discussion board, I learned about a study that compared the antioxidant levels in different types of apples. To me, the most important finding of the study was that the skins of apples contain a much higher level of antioxidants than the flesh (Meason & O’Neill, 2013). I think this is important to know because a lot of people like to peel their apples!

While antioxidants are super important to your health, through my research I learned that too many antioxidants, specifically from supplements, can have the opposite effect (Willis & Lewis, 2017). These supplements have not been proven to prevent chronic disease and may be harmful for your health (HealthLink BC, 2019). So, in my opinion, I would avoid the supplements and just follow the recommendations to eat more plant-based meals and foods high in antioxidants!

Following my research, I’ve learned a lot more about antioxidants, specifically the vast amount of foods that contain them. I’ll definitely keep these in mind next time I’m grocery shopping!

~Abbie Boes~



CLASSMATE POST #4

Free radicals are atoms or molecules that contain unpaired electrons that are unstable and highly reactive with other cellular structures. Free radicals can cause harm to proteins, DNA, and cell membranes by stealing their electrons through a process called oxidation. This oxidative stress can cause key cells to lose normal function which can damage cells, causing illness and aging (Villines, 2017). They can be produced when your body breaks down food or when you’re exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation. Free radicals have been connected to autoimmune disorders, Alzheimer’s, wrinkled skin, heart disease, cancer, and other diseases.

Antioxidants are molecules that protect your cells from free radicals. We get antioxidants naturally and from eating healthy foods like vegetables and fruits like spinach, avocados, and strawberries. Several decades of dietary research findings suggest that consuming greater amounts of antioxidant-rich foods might help to protect against diseases. antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage in individuals who consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables. Although, trials on antioxidant supplements found that they may interact with certain medications. According to the National Cancer Institute, vitamin E supplements may increase the risk of bleeding in people who are taking blood thinners. According to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, over 35,000 men aged 50 or older found that selenium and vitamin E supplements, taken alone or together, did not prevent prostate cancer. The benefits of antioxidant supplements seem to be inconclusive (NIH, 2020).

The United States Department of Agriculture found that antioxidants have many functions, not all of which are related to free radical activity. Based on my findings, marketers used any bit of information from respectable medical and health entities and ran with it. They hyped up the benefits of antioxidants to make a profit. The vast majority of studies on antioxidant supplements show little health benefits because antioxidants tend to work best in combination with other nutrients, plant chemicals, and even other antioxidants (Harvard T. H. Chan, 2020).

I will continue to research the power of antioxidants whenever it crosses my mind as I am always intrigued by the health benefits of certain foods. The evidence shows that eating healthy foods is the most beneficial. Natural foods are always my go-to. I am not a fan of supplements in general as I chose to get those nutrients from natural sources.

~Abigayle Marks~