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Chapter 6 discusses four types of perceptual distortions: stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, and projection. Define each of these and provide an example.
Perceptual distortions can be termed as an incorrect interpretation or abnormal understanding of a perceptual experience. This distortion occurs when there is a variation of the common perception and the response that takes place (Barber, & Legge, 2017). The below are types of perceptual distortions and their examples.
Stereotyping: It is mostly an overgeneralized, judgmental attitude of a person, towards an individual, who belongs to a certain social group founded on gender, race, sexual orientation, religious belief, and physical capability. Because of overgeneralized, stereotyping promotes a considerable measure of the misstep in social perception. Examples are that guys were portrayed as brave, authoritative, dominant and sovereign whereas, females were described as emotional, compliant and superstitious.
Halo effects: This terminology finds the psychologist Edward Thorndike in 1920 (Behrmann, 2019). Halo Effect is the typical human presumption or verdicts rely on the people characteristic, dressing sense, and attitude. A most basic case of the halo effect is the first impression about the outsiders we encounter. In the workplace, the halo effect is likely to receive a manager’s appreciation depending on employees’ attitude and representation (Behrmann, 2019). Indeed, this is perhaps the most common perception in performance assessment and decision-making inside an organization.
Selective perception: in this perception, a person perceives what he/she senses is right, completely ignoring the opposing point (Barber, & Legge, 2017). Instances of the selective perception in real life are, in sports peoples are so obsessed for their favorite team that they oversee the fouls the team makes and still blame the opponent team for the loss of their favorite team.
Projection: Projection is the unintentional act of rejection. Projection is a whole bunch of uncomfortable, awkward and annoying emotions is projected on to other people so that other people become carriers of our own perceived flaws (Most, 2016). A most common instance of it is, if I can do it, other people can as well. Or my co-workers dislike me.
Barber, P. J., & Legge, D. (2017). Perception and information. Routledge.
Behrmann, L. (2019). The Halo Effect as a Teaching Tool for Fostering Research-Based Learning. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 433-441.
Most, S. B. (2016). Beyond perceptual judgment: Categorization and emotion shape what we see. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39.